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Naproxen
Naproxen (INN) (pronounced /nəˈprɒksən/) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) commonly used for the reduction of moderate to severe pain, fever, inflammation and stiffness caused by conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, gout, ankylosing spondylitis, menstrual cramps, tendinitis, bursitis, and the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. It works by inhibiting both the COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes. Naproxen and naproxen sodium are marketed under various trade names including: Aleve, Anaprox, Miranax, Naprogesic, Naprosyn, Naprelan, Proxen, Synflex.

Vicodin
Vicodin EC is a trademarked brand narcotic hydrocodone compound of analgesics (painkillers) containing hydrocodone and paracetamol (acetaminophen or, more-completely, para-acetylaminophenol). It is usually found in tablet form with either the names "Vicodin", "Vicodin ES", or "Vicodin HP" imprinted on one side. Analgesics with the same chemical composition and a similar physical appearance are found under many other trade names, including Anexsia, Anolor DH5, Bancap HC, Dolacet, Hydro, Lorcet, Lortab, Norco, T-Gesic, and Vadunk. The hydrocodone/paracetamol drug formula is also available under generic brands. The paracetamol in the formula increases the effects of the hydrocodone in relieving pain but also discourages drug abuse since the doses needed for recreation would have toxic amounts of paracetamol. Oral hydrocodone is considered 1.5 times as potent as oral morphine, though the equianalgesic dose varies between patients.[1]

Xanax
Alprazolam, also known under the trade names Xanax, Reclam, Xanor and Niravam, is a short-acting drug of the benzodiazepine class used to treat moderate to severe anxiety disorders, panic attacks, and as an adjunctive treatment for anxiety associated with major depression. It is also available in an extended release form, Xanax XR. Both forms are now available generically.

Valium
Diazepam (IPA: /daɪˈæzɨpæm/), first marketed as Valium by Hoffmann-La Roche, is a benzodiazepine derivative drug. It possesses anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, sedative, skeletal muscle relaxant and amnestic properties. It is commonly used for treating anxiety, insomnia, seizures, alcohol withdrawal, and muscle spasms. It may also be used before certain medical procedures (such as endoscopies) to reduce tension and anxiety, and in some surgical procedures to induce amnesia.[1][2]

Oxycodone
Oxycodone is an opioid analgesic medication synthesized from thebaine. It was developed in 1916 in Germany, as one of several new semi-synthetic opioids with several benefits over the older traditional opiates and opioids; morphine, diacetylmorphine (heroin) and codeine. It was introduced to the pharmaceutical market as Eukodal or Eucodal and Dinarkon. Its chemical name is derived from codeine - the chemical structures are very similar, differing only in that the hydroxyl group of codeine has been oxidized to a carbonyl group (as in ketones), hence the "-one" suffix, the 7,8-dihydro-feature (codeine has a double-bond between those two carbons), and the hydroxyl group at carbon-14 (codeine has just a hydrogen in its place), hence oxycodone.

In the United States, oxycodone is a Schedule II controlled substance both as a single agent and in combination with products containing paracetamol (aka acetaminophen), ibuprofen or aspirin. Percocet, one of the most commonly prescribed narcotic pain relievers, is a mixture of oxycodone and acetaminophen.

Effexor
Venlafaxine (Effexor, Efexor) is an antidepressant of the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) class first introduced by Wyeth in 1993. It is prescribed for the treatment of major depression and anxiety disorders, among other uses. Due to the pronounced side effects and suspicions that venlafaxine may significantly increase the risk of suicide, it is not recommended as a first line treatment of depression. However, it is often effective for depression not responding to SSRIs. Venlafaxine was the sixth most widely-used antidepressant based on the number of retail prescriptions in the US (17.1 million) in 2006.[1]

Glucophage
Metformin (INN; trade names Glucophage, Riomet, Fortamet, Glumetza, Obimet, Dianben, Diabex, Diaformin, and others) (IPA: /mɛtˈfɔrmɪn/) is an oral anti-diabetic drug from the biguanide class. It is the first-line drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, particularly in overweight and obese people and those with normal kidney function,[1][2][3] and evidence suggests it may be the best choice for people with heart failure.[4] Metformin is the most popular anti-diabetic drug in the United States and one of the most prescribed drugs in the country overall, with nearly 35 million prescriptions filled in 2006 for generic metformin alone.[5] It is also used in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome.

When prescribed appropriately, metformin causes few adverse effects—the most common is gastrointestinal upset—and, unlike many other anti-diabetic drugs, does not cause hypoglycemia if used alone. It also helps reduce LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and may aid weight loss. As of 2008[update], metformin is one of only two oral anti-diabetics in the World Health Organization Model List of Essential Medicines (the other being glibenclamide).[6]

Morphine (oral and injection)
Morphine (INN) (pronounced /ˈmɔrfiːn/) is a highly potent opiate analgesic drug and is the principal active agent in opium and the prototypical opioid. It is also a natural endocrine product in humans and other animals. Like other opioids, e.g. diacetylmorphine (heroin), morphine acts directly on the central nervous system (CNS) to relieve pain, and at synapses of the nucleus accumbens in particular. Morphine is highly addictive when compared to other substances; tolerance, physical and psychological dependence develops very rapidly.

Tylenol
Tylenol is a North American brand of drugs for relieving pain, reducing fever, and relieving the symptoms of allergies, cold, cough, and flu. The active ingredient of its original, flagship product, acetaminophen (called "paracetamol" outside of North America), is marketed for headaches, fever, muscle and body pain, arthritis, and joint pain. Like the words "acetaminophen" and "paracetamol", the brand name is derived from the chemical name for the compound, N-acetyl-para-aminophenol (APAP). It is available over the counter without prescription, has few side effects, and reacts with very few medications. However, it can cause liver, kidney, other organ damage, and have fatal interactions with alcohol.

Aspirin
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), (IPA: /əˌsɛtɨlsælɨˌsɪlɨk ˈæsɨd/), is a salicylate drug, often used as an analgesic to relieve minor aches and pains, as an antipyretic to reduce fever, and as an anti-inflammatory medication.

Aspirin also has an antiplatelet or "anti-clotting" effect and is used in long-term, low doses to prevent heart attacks, strokes and blood clot formation in people at high risk for developing blood clots.[1] It has also been established that low doses of aspirin may be given immediately after a heart attack to reduce the risk of another heart attack or of the death of cardiac tissue.[2][3]

The main undesirable side effects of aspirin are gastrointestinal—ulcers and stomach bleeding—and tinnitus, especially in higher doses. In children under 19 years of age, aspirin is no longer used to control flu-like symptoms or the symptoms of chickenpox, due to the risk of Reye's syndrome.[4]

Norvasc
Amlodipine (as besylate, mesylate or maleate) is a long-acting calcium channel blocker (dihydropyridine) used as an anti-hypertensive and in the treatment of angina. Like other calcium channel blockers, amlodipine acts by relaxing the smooth muscle in the arterial wall, decreasing peripheral resistance and hence reducing blood pressure; in angina it increases blood flow to the heart muscle.

Amlodipine is marketed as Dailyvasc in the Philippines by Xeno Pharmaceuticals, and by Pfizer as Norvasc in North America and Australia and as Istin in the United Kingdom. Generic brands (sold under names such as Perivasc in Australia) are also available.

Nexium
Esomeprazole (pronounced /ɛsoʊˈmɛprəzoʊl/) is a proton pump inhibitor (brand names Sompraz, Zoleri, Nexium, Lucen, Esopral; Axagon in Italy) developed and marketed by AstraZeneca which is used in the treatment of dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease (PUD), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD/GERD) and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Esomeprazole is the S-enantiomer of omeprazole (marketed as Losec/Prilosec), and AstraZeneca claims improved efficacy of this single enantiomer product over the racemic mixture of omeprazole. However, this greater efficacy has been disputed, with some claiming it offers no benefit from its older form. (see below). Esomeprazole was the third biggest selling pharmaceutical drug in the world for 2005, totaling US$ 5.7 billion in sales.

Seroquel
Quetiapine (pronounced /kwəˈtɑɪəpiːn/, kwe-TYE-a-peen), marketed by AstraZeneca as Seroquel and by Orion Pharma as Ketipinor, is an atypical antipsychotic used in the management of schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder, and used off-label for a variety of other purposes, including insomnia and anxiety disorders.

Neurontin Oral
Gabapentin (brand name Neurontin) is a medication originally developed for the treatment of epilepsy. Currently, gabapentin is widely used to relieve pain, especially neuropathic pain.

Ibuprofen
Ibuprofen (INN) (IPA: /ˌaɪbjuːˈpɹəʊfɛn/) (from the now outdated nomenclature iso-butyl-propanoic-phenolic acid) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) originally marketed as Brufen, and since then under various other trademarks (see tradenames section), most notably Nurofen, Advil and Motrin. It is used for relief of symptoms of arthritis, primary dysmenorrhea, fever, and as an analgesic, especially where there is an inflammatory component. Ibuprofen is known to have an antiplatelet effect, though it is relatively mild and short-lived when compared with that of aspirin or other more well-known antiplatelet drugs. Ibuprofen is a core medicine in the World Health Organization's "Essential Drugs List", which is a list of minimum medical needs for a basic health care system.

Amoxicillin
Amoxicillin (INN) or amoxycillin (BAN) is a moderate-spectrum, bacteriolytic, β-lactam antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections caused by susceptible microorganisms. It is usually the drug of choice within the class because it is better absorbed, following oral administration, than other beta-lactam antibiotics. Amoxicillin is susceptible to degradation by β-lactamase-producing bacteria, and so may be given with clavulanic acid to decrease its susceptibility (see below). It is marketed and manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline.

Lorazepam (oral and injection)
Lorazepam (also known by its brand name Ativan or Temesta) is a benzodiazepine drug with short to medium duration of action. It has all five intrinsic benzodiazepine effects: anxiolytic, sedative/hypnotic, anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant, to different extents.[4] It is a powerful anxiolytic and since its introduction in 1971, lorazepam's principal use has been in treating the symptom of anxiety. It is a unique benzodiazepine insofar as it has also found use as an adjunct antiemetic in chemotherapy. Among benzodiazepines, lorazepam has a relatively high addictive potential.[5]

Sulfamethoxazole
Sulfamethoxazole, abbreviated SMX, is a sulfonamide bacteriostatic antibiotic. It is most often used as part of a synergistic combination with trimethoprim in a 5:1 ratio in co-trimoxazole, which is also known as Bactrim, Septrin, or Septra (also abbreviated SMX/TMP). Its primary activity is against susceptible forms of Streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, and oral anaerobes. It is commonly used to treat urinary tract infections. In addition can be used as an alternative to amoxicillin-based antibiotics to treat sinusitis. It can also be used to treat toxoplasmosis.

Codeine
Codeine (INN) or methylmorphine is an opiate used for its analgesic, antitussive and antidiarrheal properties. It is by far the most widely used opiate in the world and very likely most commonly used drug overall according to numerous reports over the years by organizations such as the World Health Organization and its League of Nations predecessor agency and others. It is one of the most effective orally-administered opioid analgesics and has a wide safety margin. It is from 8 to 12 percent of the strength of morphine in most people; differences in metabolism can change this figure as can other medications.

Lithium
Lithium in pharmacology refers to use of the lithium ion, Li+, as a drug. A number of chemical salts of lithium are used medically as a mood stabilizing drug, primarily in the treatment of bipolar disorder, where they have a role in the treatment of depression and particularly of mania, both acutely and in the long term. As a mood stabilizer, lithium is probably more effective in preventing mania than depression, and may reduce the risk of suicide.[1] In depression alone (unipolar disorder) lithium can be used to augment other antidepressants. Lithium carbonate (Li2CO3), sold under several trade names, is the most commonly prescribed, while the citrate salt lithium citrate (Li3C6H5O7), the sulfate salt lithium sulfate (Li2SO4), lithium aspartate and the orotate salt lithium orotate are alternatives.

Upon ingestion, lithium becomes widely distributed in the central nervous system and interacts with a number of neurotransmitters and receptors, decreasing norepinephrine release and increasing serotonin synthesis.

Ritalin
Methylphenidate[3] (MPH) is a prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD. It is also one of the primary drugs used to treat the daytime drowsiness symptoms of narcolepsy and chronic fatigue syndrome. The drug is seeing early use to treat cancer-related fatigue.[4] Brand names of drugs that contain methylphenidate include Ritalin (Ritalina, Rilatine, Attenta, Methylin, Penid, Rubifen); and the sustained release tablets Concerta, Metadate CD, Methylin ER, Ritalin LA, and Ritalin-SR. Focalin is a preparation containing only dextro-methylphenidate, rather than the usual racemic dextro- and levo-methylphenidate mixture of other formulations. A newer way of taking methylphenidate is by using a transdermal patch (under the brand name Daytrana), similar to those used for hormone replacement therapy (HRT), nicotine release and pain relief (Fentanyl or Morphine).

Warfarin (oral)
Warfarin (also known under the brand names Coumadin, Jantoven, Marevan, and Waran) is an anticoagulant. It was initially marketed as a pesticide against rats and mice, and is still popular for this purpose, although more potent poisons such as brodifacoum have since been developed. A few years after its introduction, warfarin was found to be effective and relatively safe for preventing thrombosis and embolism (abnormal formation and migration of blood clots) in many disorders. It was approved for use as a medication in the early 1950s, and has remained popular ever since; warfarin is the most widely prescribed anticoagulant drug in North America.[1] Despite its effectiveness, treatment with warfarin has several shortcomings. Many commonly used medications interact with warfarin, and its activity has to be monitored by frequent blood testing for the international normalized ratio (INR) to ensure an adequate yet safe dose is taken.[2]

Warfarin is a synthetic derivative of coumarin, a chemical found naturally in many plants, notably woodruff (Galium odoratum, Rubiaceae), and at lower levels in licorice, lavender, and various other species. Warfarin and related coumarins decrease blood coagulation by inhibiting vitamin K epoxide reductase, an enzyme that recycles oxidated vitamin K to its reduced form after it has participated in the carboxylation of several blood coagulation proteins, mainly prothrombin and factor VII. For this reason, drugs in this class are also referred to as vitamin K antagonists.[2]

Penicillin
Penicillin (sometimes abbreviated PCN or pen) is a group of Beta-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms.

“Penicillin” is also the informal name of a specific member of the penicillin group Penam Skeleton, which has the molecular formula R-C9H11N2O4S, where R is a variable side chain.

Calcium
Calcium supplements are used to prevent and to treat calcium deficiencies. Most experts recommend that supplements be taken with food and that no more than 600 mg should be taken at a time because the percent of calcium absorbed decreases as the amount of calcium in the supplement increases.[5] It is recommended to spread doses throughout the day. Recommended daily calcium intake for adults ranges from 1000 to 1500 mg. It is recommended to take supplements with food to aid in absorption.

Vitamin D is added to some calcium supplements. Proper vitamin D status is important because vitamin D is converted to a hormone in the body which then induces the synthesis of intestinal proteins responsible for calcium absorption.[17]

Robaxin
Methocarbamol (trade name Robaxin) is a central muscle relaxant used to treat skeletal muscle spasms. It is structurally related to guaifenesin, and produces guaifenesin in the body as a metabolite.

Methocarbamol is marketed under different names when presented in combination with other active ingredients. In combination with acetaminophen, its trade name is Robaxacet, whereas Robax Platinum is the trade name for a formulation of methocarbamol and ibuprofin.[2] A combination of methocarbamol and aspirin is marketed as Robaxisal.

Diphenhydramine (injection)
Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (dye fen hye' dra meen), trade name Benadryl as produced by McNeil-PPC a division of Johnson & Johnson, or Dimedrol outside the U.S. & Canada. Unisom and Nytol as sleeping pills) is an over-the-counter (OTC) antihistamine, antiemetic, sedative, and hypnotic. It may also be used for the treatment of extrapyramidal side effects of typical antipsychotics, such as the tremors that haloperidol can cause. It is a member of the ethanolamine class of antihistaminergic agents.

Diphenhydramine is also an anticholinergic and was discovered during the search for synthetic alternatives to scopolamine which would be easier to work with.[citation needed]

Diphenhydramine was one of the first known antihistamines, invented in 1943 by Dr. George Rieveschl, a former professor at the University of Cincinnati.[1] It became the first FDA-approved prescription antihistamine in 1946.[2]

The brand Benadryl is currently trademarked in the United States by Pfizer; however, many drug store chains and retail outlets manufacture less-costly generic versions under their own store brands.

Pepcid
Famotidine (INN) (pronounced /fəˈmɒtɪdiːn/) is a histamine H2-receptor antagonist that inhibits stomach acid production, and it is commonly used in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD/GORD). It is commonly marketed by J&J/Merck under the trade names Pepcidine and Pepcid. Unlike cimetidine, the first H2 antagonist, famotidine has no effect on the cytochrome P450 enzyme system, and does not appear to interact with other drugs.[1]

Sinequan
Doxepin is a psychotropic agent with tricyclic antidepressant and anxiolytic properties, known under many brand-names such as Aponal, the original preparation by Boehringer-Mannheim, now part of the Roche group; Adapine, Deptran, Sinquan and Sinequan (Pfizer). As doxepin hydrochloride it is the active ingredient in cream based preparations (Zonalon and Xepin) for the treatment of dermatological itch. Doxepin is currently investigated for the treatment of insomnia, and the proposed tradename of doxepin for this indication is Silenor.

Cymbalta
Duloxetine (brand names Cymbalta, Yentreve) is a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) used for major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), pain related to diabetic neuropathy and fibromyalgia and in some countries for stress urinary incontinence (SUI). It is manufactured and marketed by Eli Lilly.

Lexapro
Escitalopram (trade names Lexapro, Cipralex) is the pure (S) enantiomer of racemic citalopram and is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Escitalopram is used in the treatment of depression and anxiety.

Topamax (oral)
Topiramate (brand name Topamax) is an anticonvulsant drug produced by Ortho-McNeil Neurologics and Noramco, Inc., both being divisions of Johnson & Johnson. Generic versions are available in Canada and were FDA approved in September 2006 . Mylan Pharmaceuticals was recently granted final approval for generic topiramate 25, 100, and 200 mg tablets and sprinkle capsules by the FDA for sale in the US. 50 mg tablets were granted tentative approval. [1] The only patent left for topiramate in the U.S. is for pediatric use; this patent will expire on February 28th, 2009. [2] It was discovered in 1979 by Drs. Bruce E. Maryanoff and Joseph F. Gardocki during their research work at McNeil Pharmaceutical.[3][4][5]


All definitions courtesy of Wikipedia. ♥
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